Authors retain the copyright without restrictions for their published content in this journal. HSSR is a SHERPA ROMEO Green Journal.
THE INDIVIDUAL WORK PERFORMANCE SCALE: A PSYCHOMETRIC STUDY AND ITS APPLICATION FOR EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE
Corresponding Author(s) : Zulmi Ramdani
Humanities & Social Sciences Reviews,
Vol. 7 No. 5 (2019): September
Purpose: This research aims to get an individual work performance scale of the modified version which is more acceptable and has a good psychometric property.
Methodology: This study was conducted using a modified measuring instrument approach. Researchers use existing theories and then make items according to the context in which this research will be conducted. The advantage of this modification approach is getting a more comprehensive understanding of the subject we are researching.
Main Findings: Of the 303 employees that were tested in the research, the modification scale of the individual work performance has a good psychometric property with the criteria of reliability more than 0.8 and the fit model that has a good item with RMSEA score (0.062). Other than that, the modification scale of individual work performance shows a good convergent validity with presenteeism and correlate with job burnout.
Applications of this study: The Individual Work Performance Scale has a comprehensive methodology and good psychometric properties. This instrument is appropriate to be the general instrument for seeing the employee situation. In addition, this instrument can also be used as a set of tests that are suitable for use by those who will conduct an assessment of employee performance.
Novelty: This scale was made as a form of development from previous research which did not explore and develop forms of assessment that were specific to an employee's performance. There is not much-related research that focuses on many dimensions that are actually important to assess in employee performance.
Download CitationEndnote/Zotero/Mendeley (RIS)
Anastasi, A., & Urbina, S. (2007). Tes Psikologi : Psychological Testing (Terjemahan) (Ketujuh). Jakarta: PT Indeks.
Apak, S., Gümü, S., Öner, G., & Gülnihal, H. (2016). Performance appraisal and a field study. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 229, 104–114. doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2016.07.119 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2016.07.119
Appelbaum, S. H., Roy, M., & Gilliland, T. (2011). Globalization of performance appraisals : theory and applications. Management Decision, 49(4), 570–585. doi.org/10.1108/00251741111126495 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/00251741111126495
Arnăutu, E., & Panc, I. (2015). Evaluation criteria for performance appraisal of faculty members. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 203, 386–392. doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.08.313 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.08.313
Beaton, D. E., Bombardier, C., Guillemin, F., & Ferraz, M. B. (2000). Guidelines for the Process of Cross-Cultural Adaptation of Self-Report Measures, 25(24), 3186–3191. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1097/00007632-200012150-00014
Berry, L. M. (2003). Employee selection. Canada: Thomson & Wadsworth.
Bhratta, W. B. (2014). Pengaruh Pelatihan Hatha Yoga Terhadap Job Burnout Masa Kerja Sebagai Kovariabel. Yogyakarta.
Blumberg, M., & Pringle, C. D. (1982). The missing opportunity in organizational research: Some implications for a theory of work performance. The Academy of Management Review, 7(4), 560–569. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5465/amr.1982.4285240
Bowden, H. M., & Sandlund, E. (2019). Knowledge talk in performance appraisal interviews. Learning, Culture and Social Interaction, 21(December 2018), 278–292. doi.org/10.1016/j.lcsi.2019.03.012 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lcsi.2019.03.012
Bretz, R., Milkovich, G., & Read, W. (1992). The current state of performance appraisal research and practice: concerns, directions, and implications. Journal of Management, 18(2), 321–352. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/014920639201800206
Bullinger, M., Alonso, J., Apolone, G., Leplège, A., & Sullivan, M. (1998). Translating health status questionnaires and evaluating their quality : The IQOLA project approach. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 51(11), 913–923. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0895-4356(98)00082-1
Callen, B. L., Lindley, L. C., & Victoria, P. (2013). Health risk factors associated with presenteeism in the workplace. JOEM, 55(11), 1312–1317.doi.org/10.1097/JOM.0b013e3182a200f4 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1097/JOM.0b013e3182a200f4
Carlton, I., & Sloman, M. (1989). Performance appraisal in practice. Human Resource Management Journal, 2(3), 80–94. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1748-8583.1992.tb00261.x
Choon, L. K., & Embi, M. A. (2012). Subjectivity, organizational justice and performance appraisal: Understanding the concept of subjectivity in leading towards employees’ perception of fairness in the performance appraisal. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 62, 189–193. doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.09.030 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.09.030
Crocker, L., Crocker, L., Alglna, J., Staudt, M., Mercurio, S., Hintz, K., & Walker, R. A. (2008). Introduction to classical and modern test theory. United State of America: Cengage Learning.
Darcy, M. U. A., & Tracey, T. J. G. (2007). Circumplex structure of holland ’ s RIASEC interests across gender and time. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 54(1), 17–31. doi.org/10.1037/0022-0220.127.116.11 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-018.104.22.168
Dew, K., Keefe, V., & Small, K. (2005). Choosing to work when sick : Workplace presenteeism. Social Science & Medicine, 60, 2273–2282. doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2004.10.022 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2004.10.022
Dijk, D. Van, & Schodl, M. M. (2015). Performance appraisal and evaluation. International Encyclopedia of Social & Behavioral Sciences, 17, 716–721. doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-08-097086-8.22034-5 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-08-097086-8.22034-5
Dunn, J. G. H., & Bouffard, M. (2009). Assessing item in sport psychology research : Issues and recommendations. Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science, 3(1), 37–41. doi.org/10.1207/s15327841mpee0301
Gudono. (2016). Analisis data multivariat (Keempat). Yogyakarta: BFFE-Yogyakarta.
Harari, M. B., & Rudolph, C. W. (2017). The effect of rater accountability on performance ratings : A meta-analytic review. Human Resource Management Review, 27(1), 121–133. doi.org/10.1016/j.hrmr.2016.09.007 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hrmr.2016.09.007
Hobson, C. J. (1981). Clarifying performance appraisal criteria. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 188, 164–188. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0030-5073(81)90021-0
Holzman, J. B., & Valentiner, D. P. (2016). Self-focused attention affects subsequent processing of positive (but not negative) performance appraisals. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 50, 295–302. doi.org/10.1016/j.jbtep.2015.10.008 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbtep.2015.10.008
Hongmei, Z., & Tianyi, Z. (2014). The study of the differences of appraisal results by self and appraisal results by Line-manager in performance appraisal. Journal of Statistics and Management, (December 2014), 37–41. doi.org/10.1080/09720510.2010.10701497
Iqbal, M. Z., Akbar, S., Budhwar, P., & Shah, S. Z. A. (2019). Effectiveness of performance appraisal: Evidence on the utilization criteria. Journal of Business Research, 101(May 2018), 285–299. doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2019.04.035 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2019.04.035
Jewell, L., & Siegall, M. (1998). Psikologi industri/organisasi modern. (A. Danuyasa, Ed.) (Second edi). USA: Arcan.
Kessler, R. C., Barber, C., Beck, A., Berglund, P., Ba, M., Cleary, P. D., … Ustun, T. B. (2003). The world health organization health and work performance questionnaire (HPQ). JOEM, 45(2), 156–174. doi.org/10.1097/01.jom.0000052967.43131.51 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1097/01.jom.0000052967.43131.51
Koopmans, L. (2015). Individual work performance questionnaire : Instruction manual. TNO innovation for Life - VU University Medical Center.
Koopmans, L., Bernaards, C., & Hildebrandt, V. (2012). Development of an individual work performance questionnaire. International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, 62(No. 1, 2013), 6–28. doi.org/10.1108/17410401311285273 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/17410401311285273
Koopmans, L., Bernaards, C. M., Hildebrandt, V. H., Cw, H., & Vet, D. (2013). Measuring individual work performance : Identifying and selecting indicators. Galley Prof, 00, 1–10. doi.org/10.3233/WOR-131659 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/e604062012-229
Koopmans, L., Bernaards, C. M., Hildebrandt, V. H., Vet, H. C. W. De, & Beek, A. J. Van Der. (2014). Construct validity of the individual work performance questionnaire. JOEM, 56(3), 331–337. doi.org/10.1097/JOM.0000000000000113 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1097/JOM.0000000000000113
Mateen, B. A., Doogan, C., Hayward, K., Hourihan, S., Hurford, J., & Playford, E. D. (2017). Systematic Review of Health-Related Work Outcome Measures and Quality Criteria-Based Evaluations of Their Psychometric Properties. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 98(3), 534–560.doi.org/10.1016/j.apmr.2016.06.013 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apmr.2016.06.013
Maul, A., Torres, D., & Wilson, M. (2016). On the philosophical foundations of psychological measurement. Measurement, 79, 311–320.doi.org/10.1016/j.measurement.2015.11.001 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.measurement.2015.11.001
Meng, L., & Jin, Y. (2017). A confirmatory factor analysis of the utrecht work engagement scale for students in a chinese sample. Nurse Education Today, 49, 129–134. doi.org/10.1016/j.nedt.2016.11.017 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nedt.2016.11.017
Muda, I., Rafiki, A., & Harahap, M. R. (2014). Factors Influencing Employees ’ Performance : A Study on the Islamic Banks in Islamic Science University of Malaysia University of North Sumatera. International Journal of Business and Social Sience, 5(2), 73–81.
Mustafa, M. N. (2012). Teacher perspectives on work performance: A review in high school Riau province, Pekanbaru, Indonesia. Research Journal of Applied Sciences. doi.org/10.3923/rjasci.2012.458.465
Mustafa, M. N., & Othman, N. (2010). The Effect of Work Motivation on Teacher ’ s Work Performance in Pekanbaru Senior High Schools , Riau Province , Indonesia. Sosiohumanika, 3(2), 259–272.
Nair, M. S., & Salleh, R. (2015). Linking performance appraisal justice, trust, and employee engagement: A conceptual framework. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 211, 1155–1162. doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.11.154 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.11.154
Pines, A., & Maslach, C. (1978). Characteristics of staff burnout in mental health settings. Hospital & Community Psychiatry, 29(4), 233–237. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1176/ps.29.4.233
Pradhan, R. K., & Jena, L. K. (2017). Employee performance at workplace: conceptual model and empirical validation.Business Perspectives and Research, 5(1), 69–85. doi.org/10.1177/2278533716671630 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/2278533716671630
Ramdani, Zulmi. (2018). Construction of academic integrity scale. International Journal of Research Studies in Psychology, 7(1), 87–97. doi.org/10.5861/ijrsp.2018.3003 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5861/ijrsp.2018.3003
Rehan, M., Iqbal, M. Z., Fatima, A., & Nawab, S. (2017). Organizational cynicism and its relationship with employee’s performance in teaching hospitals of pakistan. International Journal of Economics & Management Sciences, 6(3). doi.org/10.4172/2162-6359.1000413 DOI: https://doi.org/10.4172/2162-6359.1000413
Russell, S., & Brannan, M. J. (2016). Getting the right people on the bus: Recruitment , selection and integration for the branded organization. European Management Journal, XXX, 1–11. doi.org/10.1016/j.emj.2016.01.001 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.emj.2016.01.001
Rusu, G., Avasilcăi, S., & Huţu, C.-A. (2016). Organizational context factors influencing employee performance appraisal: A research framework. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 221, 57–65. doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2016.05.090 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2016.05.090
Selvarajan, T. T., Singh, B., & Solansky, S. (2018). Performance appraisal fairness, leader member exchange and motivation to improve performance: A study of US and Mexican employees. Journal of Business Research, 85(April 2016), 142–154. doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2017.11.043 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2017.11.043
Thompson, B. (2004). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. Washington: American Psychological Association. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/10694-010
Turner, M. J., & Allen, M. S. (2018). Confirmatory factor analysis of the irrational performance beliefs inventory (iPBI) in a sample of amateur and semi-professional athletes. Psychology of Sport & Exercise. doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2017.11.017 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2017.11.017
Vet, H. C. W. De, Mokkink, L. B., Mosmuller, D. G., & Terwee, C. B. (2017). Spearman-brown prophecy formula and cronbach’s alpha: Different faces of reliability and opportunities for new applications. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology. doi.org/10.1016/j.jclinepi.2017.01.013
Wallace, J. C., & Chen, G. (2005). Development and validation of a work-specific measure of cognitive failure : Implications for occupational safety. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 78, 615–632. doi.org/10.1348/096317905X37442 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1348/096317905X37442
Wang, P. S., Beck, A., Berglund, P., Leutzinger, J. A., Pronk, N., Schenk, T. W., … Kessler, R. C. (2003). Chronic medical conditions and work performance in the health and work performance questionnaire calibration surveys. JOEM, 45(12), 1303–1311. doi.org/10.1097/01.jom.0000100200.90573.df DOI: https://doi.org/10.1097/01.jom.0000100200.90573.df
Wild, D., Grove, A., Eremenco, S., McElroy, S., Verjee-Lorenz, A., & Erikson, P. (2005). Principles of good practice for the translation and cultural adaptation process for patient-reported outcomes (PRO) measures: Report of the ISPOR task force for translation and cultural adaptation. Value in Health, 8(2), 94–104. doi.org/10.1111/j.1524-4733.2005.04054.x DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1524-4733.2005.04054.x