This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Authors retain the copyright without restrictions for their published content in this journal. HSSR is a SHERPA ROMEO Green Journal.
RISK FACTORS OF INTERNET GAMING AMONG FILIPINO STUDENTS
Corresponding Author(s) : Marris R. Reyes
Humanities & Social Sciences Reviews,
Vol. 8 No. 4 (2020): July
Purpose of the study: The main objective of this study is to examine the risk factors for internet gaming disorder (IGD). Specifically, it aims to: measure the severity of internet gaming among Filipino students; describe their internet gaming characteristic; and, identify which among the risk factors predict IGD.
Methodology: Students who displayed five or more symptoms in the Internet Gaming Disorder Scale – Short Form (IGD9-SF) were identified. The internet gaming characteristics, Brief Self Control Scale (BSCS) to identify self-control levels, and Mini-IPIP for the personality of the participants were also collected. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and linear regression analysis to identify the significant risk factors for IGD using SPSS 17.0.
Main Findings: Internet gaming characteristics such as time spent, money spent, and devices used were significant risk factors to IGD. Psychological factors such as self-control and personality traits (agreeableness and openness) were established and were also significant risk factors. The lower the self-control the higher the risk of developing IGD, as well as the more agreeable and open the gamers are the higher the risk to IGD.
Applications of this study: Researchers and therapists should focus on developing intervention methods focusing on minimizing the device's exposure to lessen time and money spent in gaming as well as strengthening the self-control of the gamers.
Novelty/Originality of this study: This psychological inquiry contributed to the emerging psychological disorder IGD shedding light on its current debates and controversies. This established risk factors to IGD among Filipino students who are time spent, money spent, devices used, self-control, and personality factors such as agreeableness and openness.
American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-5) (5th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association. https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.books.9780890425596 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.books.9780890425596
Bailey, K., West, R., & Kuffel, J. (2013). What would my avatar do? Gaming, pathology, and risky decision making. Frontiers in psychology, 4, 609. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00609 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00609
Baggio, S., Dupuis, M., Studer, J., Spilka, S., Daeppen, J. B., Simon, O., Berchtold, A., & Gmel, G. (2016). Reframing video gaming and Internet use addiction: Empirical cross-national comparison of heavy use over time and addiction scales among young users. Addiction, 111(3), 513–522. https://doi.org/10.1111/add.13192 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/add.13192
Bax, T. (2016). “Internet Gaming Disorder” in China: Biomedical Sickness or Sociological Badness? Games and Culture, 11(3), 233–255. https://doi.org/10.1177/1555412014568188 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1555412014568188
Belanger-Lejars, V. (2015). Internet gaming disorder and gambling disorder: A comparison of individual factors. Journal of Psychology and Behavioral Science. SAGE Publication. 3(2) 122-140. https://doi.org/10.15640/jpbs.v3n2a12 DOI: https://doi.org/10.15640/jpbs.v3n2a12
Billieux, J., Schimmenti, A., Khazaal, Y., Maurage, P. & Heeren, A. (2015). Are we psycho pathologizing everyday life? A tenable blueprint of behavioural addiction research. Journal of Behavioural Addiction 4(3), 119-123. https://doi.org/10.1556/2006.4.2015.009 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1556/2006.4.2015.009
Braun, B., Stopfer, J. M., Müller, K. W., Beutel, M. E., & Egloff, B. (2016). “Personality and video gaming: Comparing regular gamers, non-gamers, and gaming addicts and differentiating between game genres”. Computers in Human Behavior, 55(Part A), 406–412. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2015.09.041 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2015.09.041
Carver, C. S. (2005). “Impulse and constraint: perspectives from personality psychology, convergence with theory in other areas, and potential for integration”. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 9(4), 312–333. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327957pspr0904_2 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327957pspr0904_2
Cole, S. H., & Hooley, J. M. (2013). Clinical and personality correlate with MMO gaming: anxiety and absorption in problematic internet use. Social Science Computer Review, 31(4), 424–436. https://doi.org/10.1177/0894439312475280 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0894439312475280
Day I. (2017). A family systems approach to the understanding and treatment of internet gaming disorder. The Family Journal: Counselling and Therapy for Couples and Families 25(3), 264-270. https://doi.org/10.1177/1066480717711108 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1066480717711108
Donnellan, M. B., Oswald, F. L., Baird, B. M., and Lucas, R. E. (2006). The Mini-IPIP scales: Tiny-yet-effective measure of the five factors of personality. Psychological Assessment, APA 18(2), pp. 192-203 https://doi.org/10.1037/1040-35184.108.40.206 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/1040-35220.127.116.11
Esposito, N. (2005). A short and simple definition of what a videogame is. Retrieved online http://summit.sfu.ca/item/258
Feist, J., Feist, G. & Roberts T. (2018). Theories of Personality: 9th Edition. New York, McGraw-Hill Education.
Gervasi, A. M., La Marca, L., Constanzo, A., Pace, U., Guglielmucci, F. & Schimmenti, A. (2017). Personality and internet gaming disorder: a systematic review of recent literature. Current Addiction Reports, 4, 293-307. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40429-017-0159-6 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s40429-017-0159-6
González-Bueso, V., Santamaría, J. J., Fernández, D., Merino, L., Montero, E., Jiménez-Murcia, S., Del Pino-Gutiérrez, A., & Ribas, J. (2018). Internet Gaming Disorder in Adolescents: Personality, Psychopathology and Evaluation of a Psychological Intervention Combined With Parent Psychoeducation. Frontiers in psychology, 9, 787. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00787 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00787
Hyun, G. J., Han, D. H., Lee, Y. S., Kang, K. D., Yoo, S. K., Chung, U.-S., et al. (2015). Risk factors associated with online game addiction: a hierarchical model. Comput. Hum. Behav. 48, 706–713. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2015.02.008 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2015.02.008
Karabaevna, I., Riskulova, K., Ubaydullaevich, A. M., Yulduzkhon, I., Pulatova, T., & Ravshanovna, N. (2020). The role of electronic pedagogical tools in higher education. Journal of Critical Review, 7 (5), 396-398. https://doi.org/10.31838/jcr.07.05.80 DOI: https://doi.org/10.31838/jcr.07.05.80
Kardefelt-Winther, D. (2014). Problematizing excessive online gaming and its psychological predictors. Computers in Human Behavior, 31, 118–122. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2013.10.017 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2013.10.017
Kardefelt‐Winther, D. (2017), Conceptualizing Internet-use disorders: Addiction or coping process? Psychiatry Clinical Neuroscience, 71: 459-466. https://doi.org/10.1111/pcn.12413 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/pcn.12413
King, D. & Delfabbro, K. (2019). "Internet gaming disorder: theory, assessment, and treatment 1st edition. Academic Press Elsevier. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-812924-1.09986-X DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-812924-1.09986-X
King, D. L., and Delfabbro, P. H. (2018) Predatory monetization schemes in video games (e.g. ‘loot boxes’) and internet gaming disorder. Addiction, 113: 1967– 1969. https://doi.org/10.1111/add.14286 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/add.14286
King, D. L., Delfabbro, P. H., Zwaans, T. & Kaptasis, D. (2013). Clinical features and axis I comorbidity of Australian adolescent pathological Internet and video-game users. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 47, 1058-1067. https://doi.org/10.1177/0004867413491159 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0004867413491159
Király, O., Griffiths, M. D. & Demotrovics, Z. (2015). Internet gaming disorder and the DSM-5: conceptualization, debates, and controversies. Current Addiction Research 2, 254-262. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40429-015-0066-7 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s40429-015-0066-7
Király, O., Nagygyörgy, K., Griffiths, M. D., & Demetrovics, Z. (2014). Problematic Online Gaming. In Behavioral Addictions: Criteria, Evidence, and Treatment (pp. 61-97). https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-407724-9.00004-5 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-407724-9.00004-5
Kosheleva, A., Tamu Samedov, A. & Sabirova, S. (2020). "Game as an activity in culture and pedagogy of Uzbekistan." Journal of Critical Reviews 7.4 (2020), 416-420. https://doi.org/10.31838/jcr.07.04.80 DOI: https://doi.org/10.31838/jcr.07.04.80
Kuss, D. J., Pontes, H., Király, O. & Demetrovics, Z. (2018). A Psychological Overview of Gaming Disorder. The Oxford Handbook of Cyberpsychology, 1-23. https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780198812746.013.25 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780198812746.013.25
Kuss, D. J., Griffiths, M. D., & Pontes, H. M. (2017). Chaos and confusion in DSM-5 diagnosis of Internet Gaming Disorder: Issues, concerns, and recommendations for clarity in the field. Journal of behavioural addictions, 6(2), 103–109. https://doi.org/10.1556/2006.5.2016.062 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1556/2006.5.2016.062
Lemmens, J. S., Valkenburg, P. M., & Gentile, D. A. (2015). The Internet Gaming Disorder Scale. Psychological Assessment, 27(2), 567–582. https://doi.org/10.1037/pas0000062 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/pas0000062
Liboriussen, B., & Martin, P. (2016). Special Issue: Games and Gaming in China. Games and Culture, 11(3), 227–232. https://doi.org/10.1177/1555412015615296 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1555412015615296
Maloney, P. W., Grawitch, M. J. & Barber, L. K. (2012). The multi-factor structure of brief self-control scale: discriminant validity of restraint and impulsivity. Journal of Research in Personality. Elsevier. 46 (1), 111-115 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrp.2011.10.001 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrp.2011.10.001
Mehroof, M. & Griffiths, M. D. (2010). Online gaming addiction: the role of sensation seeking, self-control, neuroticism, aggression, state anxiety, trait anxiety. Cyberpsychology Behaviour and Social Networking, 13 (3), 313-316. https://doi.org/10.1089/cyber.2009.0229 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1089/cyber.2009.0229
Mei, S., Yau, Y. H., Chai, J., Guo, J., and Potenza, M. N. (2016). Problematic internet use, well-being, self-esteem, and self-control. Addiction Behaviour. 61, 74-79. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2016.05.009 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2016.05.009
Mihara, S. & Higuchi, S. (2017). Cross-sectional and longitudinal epidemiological studies of Internet gaming disorder: a systematic review of the literature. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, https://doi.org/10.1111/pcn.12532 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/pcn.12532
Mὔller, K. W., Beutel, M. Egloff, B., and Wölfling, K. (2014). Investigating Risk Factors for Internet Gaming Disorder: A Comparison of Patients with Addictive Gaming, Pathological Gamblers, and Healthy Controls regarding the Big Five Personality Traits. European Addiction Research 20, pp 129-136, https://doi.org/10.1159/000355832 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1159/000355832
Paik SH, Cho H, Chun JW, Jeong JE, Kim DJ (2017). Gaming device usage patterns predict internet gaming disorder: Comparison across Different Gaming Device Usage Patterns. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2017;14(12):1512. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14121512 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14121512
Pontes, H.M., Schivinski, B., Sindermann, C., Mei, L., Becker, B., Zhou, M. & Montag, C. (2019). Measurement and Conceptualization of Gaming Disorder According to the World Health Organization Framework: the Development of the Gaming Disorder Test. Int J Ment Health Addiction. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-019-00088-z DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-019-00088-z
Pontes, H. M. (2016). Current practices in the clinical and psychometric assessment of internet gaming disorder in the era of the DSM-5: a mini-review of existing assessment tools. Mental Health and Addiction Research 1(1). https://doi.org/10.15761/MHAR.1000105 DOI: https://doi.org/10.15761/MHAR.1000105
Pontes, H. M. & Griffiths, M. D. (2015). Measuring DSM-5 internet gaming disorder: development and validation of a short psychometric scale. Computers in Human Behaviour 45 (2015) 137–143. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2014.12.006 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2014.12.006
Przybylski, A. K., Weinstein, N., & Murayama, K. (2016). Internet gaming disorder: investigating the clinical relevance of a new phenomenon. American Journal of Psychiatry, 174, 230–236. https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2016.16020224 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2016.16020224
Rahmadi L. & Prambayun, A. (2019). Design of Game Design Document as an Interactive Media to Introduce the Culture of Pagar Alam City. Journal of Critical Reviews, 6 (5), 243-251.
Rho, M. J., Lee, H., Lee, T., Cho, H., Jung, D., Kim, D. & Choi, Y. (2017). Risk factors for internet gaming disorder: psychological factors and internet gaming characteristics. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 15, 40. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15010040 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15010040
Rosyati T., Purwanto, M., Gumelar, G., Yulianti, R., & Mukharrom, T. (2020). "Effects of games and how parents overcome addiction to children." Journal of Critical Reviews 7(1), 65-67.
Steinkuehler, C.A. and Williams, D. (2006), Where Everybody Knows Your (Screen) Name: Online Games as “Third Places”. Journal of Computer‐Mediated Communication, 11: 885-909. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1083-6101.2006.00300.x DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1083-6101.2006.00300.x
Suriya, A. (2019). Psychology factor-based sentiment analysis for online product customer review using multi-mixed short text ridge analysis. Journal of Critical Reviews 6.6, 146-150.
Tangey, J. P., Baumeister, R. F. & Boone, A. L. (2004). High Self-control predicts good adjustment, less pathology, better grades, and interpersonal success. Journal of Personality Psychology. 72, 271-324 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0022-3506.2004.00263.x DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0022-3506.2004.00263.x
Throuvala, M.A., Janikian M., Griffiths, M. D., Rennoldson, M. & Kuss, D. (2019). The role of family and personality traits in Internet gaming disorder: A mediation model combining cognitive and attachment perspectives. Journal of Behavioral Addiction 8(4), 1-15. https://doi.org/10.1556/2006.8.2019.05 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1556/2006.8.2019.05
Wang, C. H., Ho, R. T., Chan, C. L. & Tse, S. (2015). Prevalence and correlates of comorbid depression in a nonclinical online sample with DSM-5 internet gaming disorder. Journal of Affective Disorders, 226, 1-5. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2017.08.005 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2017.08.005
Weis, R., & Cerankosky, B. C. (2010). Effects of video-game ownership on young boys’ academic and behavioral functioning: a randomized, controlled study. Psychological Science, 21, 463–470. https://doi.org/10.1177/0956797610362670 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0956797610362670
World Health Organization (2018). Video Gaming Disorder. https://www.who.int/news-room/q-a-detail/gaming-disorder
Yen, J. Y., Kho, C. H., Yen, C. F., Chen, S. H., Chung, W. L. & Chen, C. C. (2008). Psychiatric symptoms in adolescents with internet addiction: Comparison with substance abuse. Journal of Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 62, pp. 9-16. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-1819.2007.01770.x DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-1819.2007.01770.x
Zhang, J.-T., & Brand, M. (2018). Editorial: Neural Mechanisms Underlying Internet Gaming Disorder. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 9. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2018.00404 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2018.00404