Main Article Content


Purpose of the study: This study aimed to assess the green practices of travel agents and tour operators in Southern Cagayan Valley, Philippines in terms of energy efficiency, waste minimization and water consumption.

Methodology: This study used a quantitative descriptive methodology. The research instrument was adapted from Ahmad (2013). The survey respondents are fifty six (56) travel agents and tour operators in the provinces of Quirino, Nueva Vizcaya and southern part of Isabela. All data were analyzed using SPSS. To arrive at the result, the following statistical tool were used: Non-parametric test were employed to identify the significant difference including Mann-Whitney U test and Kruskal Wallis test.

Main Findings: Findings revealed that green practices along with energy efficiency were mostly practiced, and waste minimization were often executed. However, for water consumption, three items were often and other two were just rarely practiced by the respondents. This paper suggests a plan of action in enhancing green practices used by businesses in travel and tours.

Applications of the study: This paper will be useful to travel agencies and operators in creating methods and policies to further increase tourism sustainability. This could also raise awareness among tourism officers and policy makers about the nature of the prevailing business practices, enabling them to identify key concerns in management policy and the creation of new skills that will promote sustainable tourism.

Novelty/Originality of the study: This study offers fresh insights that could contribute to the deeper understanding of the green practices as well as the challenges and opportunities inherent in promoting sustainability in the tourism industry of Southern Cagayan Valley.


Tourism Sustainability Green Practices Travel Agents Tour Operators Quirinio

Article Details

How to Cite
Barroga, M. B. (2024). Green Practices of Travel Agents and Tour Operators in Southern Cagayan Valley, Philippines. International Journal of Tourism & Hospitality Reviews, 11(1), 08–17.


  1. Ahmad, N. L., Rashid, W. E. W., Abd Razak, N., Yusof, A. N. M., & Shah, N. S. M. (2013). Green event management and initiatives for sustainable business growth. International Journal of Trade, Economics and Finance, 4(5), 331.
  2. Azcarate, I., Gutierrez, J. J., Lazkano, A., Saiz, P., Redondo, K., & Leturiondo, L. A. (2016). Towards limiting the sensitivity of energy-efficient lighting to voltage fluctuations. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 59, 1384-1395.
  3. Barroga, M., & Borbon, N. M. D. (2022). Impact to the operating tourism business during COVID-19 pandemic towards crisis management practices in the province of Quirino. International Journal of Research, 10(4), 43-54.
  5. Borbon, N. M. (2022). Green practices of event management enterprises in Batangas City. Pulhin, JCB, & Borbon, NMD (2021). Green practices of event management enterprises in Batangas City. Asia-Pacific Journal of Innovation in Hospitality and Tourism, 10(2), 21-39.
  6. Budeanu, A. (2005). Impacts and responsibilities for sustainable tourism: a tour operator's perspective. Journal of cleaner production, 13(2), 89-97.,
  7. Casado-Díaz, A. B., Sancho-Esper, F., Rodriguez-Sanchez, C., & Sellers-Rubio, R. (2022). Tourists' water conservation behavior in hotels: the role of gender. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 30(7), 1518-1538.
  8. Čekanavičius, L., Bazytė, R., & Dičmonaitė, A. (2014). Green business: challenges and practices. Ekonomika, 93(1), 74-88.
  9. Chen, H., Bernard, S., & Rahman, I. (2019). Greenwashing in hotels: A structural model of trust and behavioral intentions. Journal of cleaner production, 206, 326-335.
  10. Cheng, Q., Su, B., & Tan, J. (2013). Developing an evaluation index system for low-carbon tourist attractions in China-A case study examining the Xixi wetland. Tourism Management, 36, 314-320.
  11. Christodoulidou, N., Connolly, D. J., & Brewer, P. (2010). An examination of the transactional relationship between online travel agencies, travel meta sites, and suppliers. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management.
  12. Csapó, J. (2013). Energy Efficiency in Tourism–Towards a More Sustainable Travel Industry. Geographical Locality Studies, 1(1), 44-57.
  13. Enongene, K. E., Murray, P., Holland, J., & Abanda, F. H. (2017). Energy savings and economic benefits of transition towards efficient lighting in residential buildings in Cameroon. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 78, 731-742.
  14. Gabarda-Mallorquí, A., Garcia, X., Fraguell, R. M., & Ribas, A. (2021). Are hotel stay characteristics influencing guests' environmental behaviour? Predicting water conservation habits. Current Issues in Tourism, 24(16), 2342-2356.
  15. Gonsalves, P. (1996). Tourism: the broader picture. Tourism in Focus, 19, 6-7.
  16. Gössling, S., Peeters, P., Hall, C. M., Ceron, J. P., Dubois, G., & Scott, D. (2012). Tourism and water use: Supply, demand, and security. An international review. Tourism management, 33(1), 1-15.
  17. Hamid, M. A., Isa, S. M., & Kiumarsi, S. (2021). Sustainable tourism practices and business performance from the tour operators' perspectives. Anatolia, 32(1), 23-32.
  18. Han, H., & Hyun, S. S. (2018). What influences water conservation and towel reuse practices of hotel guests? Tourism Management, 64, 87-97.
  19. Kim, J. Y., Hlee, S., & Joun, Y. (2016). Green practices of the hotel industry: Analysis through the windows of smart tourism system. International Journal of Information Management, 36(6), 1340-1349.
  20. Kim, S. H., Bae, J. H., & Jeon, H. M. (2019). Continuous intention on accommodation apps: integrated value-based adoption and expectation–confirmation model analysis. Sustainability, 11(6), 1578.
  21. Lee, L. C., Wang, Y., Zuo, J., & Zhang, L. (2021). Water footprint of Chinese tourists: Directions and structure. Journal of Hydrology, 603, 127151.
  22. Linstadt, H., Collins, A., Slutzman, J. E., Kimball, E., Lemery, J., Sorensen, C., & Auerbach, P. S. (2020). The Climate-Smart emergency department: a primer. Annals of Emergency Medicine, 76(2), 155-167.
  23. Lu, Y., Khan, Z. A., Alvarez-Alvarado, M. S., Zhang, Y., Huang, Z., & Imran, M. (2020). A critical review of sustainable energy policies for the promotion of renewable energy sources. Sustainability, 12(12), 5078.
  24. Liu, J., Pan, H., & Zheng, S. (2019). Tourism development, environment and policies: differences between domestic and international tourists. Sustainability, 11(5), 1390.
  25. Mclennan, C. L. J., Becken, S., & Stinson, K. (2017). A water-use model for the tourism industry in the Asia-Pacific region: The impact of water-saving measures on water use. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, 41(6), 746-767.
  26. Merli, R., Preziosi, M., Acampora, A., & Ali, F. (2019). Why should hotels go green? Insights from guests experience in green hotels. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 81, 169-179. https://doi.o rg/10.1016/j.ijhm.2019.04.022
  27. Millar, M., & Baloglu, S. (2011). Hotel guests' preferences for green guest room attributes. Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, 52(3), 302-311.
  28. Miroshnychenko, I., Barontini, R., & Testa, F. (2017). Green practices and financial performance: A global outlook. Journal of Cleaner Production, 147, 340-351.
  29. Mohandas, P., Dhanaraj, J. S. A., & Gao, X. Z. (2019). Artificial neural network based smart and energy efficient street lighting system: A case study for residential area in Hosur. Sustainable Cities and Society, 48, 101499.
  30. NGUYEN, T. K. T. (2020). Studying factors affecting environmental accounting implementation in mining enterprises in Vietnam. The Journal of Asian Finance, Economics and Business, 7(5), 131-144.
  31. Pan, S. Y., Gao, M., Kim, H., Shah, K. J., Pei, S. L., & Chiang, P. C. (2018). Advances and challenges in sustainable tourism toward a green economy. Science of the total environment, 635, 452-469.
  32. Pham, P. U., & NguyenDang, Q. (2019). Developing Quality of School Meal and Start-up Business Plan of New Canteen Model in Viet Nam.
  33. Qian, X., & Schneider, I. E. (2016). Waste minimization practices among tourism businesses: A multi-year comparison. Tourism Management Perspectives, 19, 19-23.
  34. Sánchez Flores, R., Cruz Sotelo, S., & Ojeda Benitez, S. (2020). Global Perspectives on Green Business Administration and Sustainable Supply Chain Management. Hershey, PA: IGI-Global.
  35. Setiawan, P., & Widanta, A. (2021). The effect of trust on travel agent online use: Application of the technology acceptance model. International Journal of Data and Network Science, 5(3), 173-182.
  36. Sharma, A., Sharma, S., & Chaudhary, M. (2020). Are small travel agencies ready for digital marketing? Views of travel agency managers. Tourism Management, 79, 104078.
  37. Sung, P. L., Hsiao, T. Y., Huang, L., & Morrison, A. M. (2021). The influence of green trust on travel agency intentions to promote low‐carbon tours for the purpose of sustainable development. Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management, 28(4), 1185-1199.
  38. Tang, C., Zhong, L., & Ng, P. (2017). Factors that influence the tourism industry's carbon emissions: A tourism area life cycle model perspective. Energy Policy, 109, 704-718.
  39. Tsagarakis, K. P., Bounialetou, F., Gillas, K., Profylienou, M., Pollaki, A., & Zografakis, N. (2011). Tourists’ attitudes for selecting accommodation with investments in renewable energy and energy saving systems. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 15(2), 1335-1342. rser.2010.10.009
  40. Ullah, Z., Naveed, R. T., Rehman, A. U., Ahmad, N., Scholz, M., Adnan, M., & Han, H. (2021). Towards the development of sustainable tourism in pakistan: A study of the role of tour operators. Sustainability, 13(9), 4902.
  42. Wicaksono, A., & Maharani, A. (2020). The effect of perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use on the technology acceptance model to use online travel agency. Journal of Business and Management Review, 1(5), 313-328.
  43. Yu, Y., Li, X., & Jai, T. M. C. (2017). The impact of green experience on customer satisfaction: Evidence from TripAdvisor. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management.
  44. Yusof, Y., Awang, Z., Jusoff, K., & Ibrahim, Y. (2017). The influence of green practices by non-green hotels on customer satisfaction and loyalty in hotel and tourism industry. International Journal of Green Economics, 11(1), 1-14.
  45. Yusuf, R., & Fajri, I. (2022). Differences in behavior, engagement and environmental knowledge on waste management for science and social students through the campus program. Heliyon, 8(2).
  46. Zorpas, A. A. (2020). Strategy development in the framework of waste management. Science of the total environment, 716, 137088.