Main Article Content
The concept of corporate social responsibility (CSR) has gained much attention in recent years. It provides companies with a signiﬁ cant approach for achieving performance excellence and considered a source for enhancing competitive advantage. This paper comes to investigate CSR within the context of ﬁ ve-star hotels in Hurgada, Egypt and assess its impact on employees’ job engagement, retention, attraction, and organizational commitment. Data was collected using multiple research methods, including: questionnaire survey, semi-structured interviews, and content analysis.
This research found that the majority of hotels did not consider their CSR to society but tackled their CSR to environment undertaking various measures to conserve resources. Hotels provided little support to most internal CSR practices identiﬁ ed in this study. The study showed that internal CSR could be used as an important driver for enhancing employee job engagement and organizational commitment. However, CSR still not considered a signiﬁ cant tool to attract and retain high potential candidates.
This research concluded that hotels should show more commitment to serve the community and formulate their core business strategies accordingly. The governmental and environmental organizations’ intervention is essential to provide more awareness to hotel businesses regarding tackling their CSR.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Authors retain the copyright without restrictions for their published content in this journal. IJTHR is a Sherpa Romeo Journal.
This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of
- Abdullah, M.H., & Rashid, N.R. (2012). The implementation of corporate social responsibility (CSR) programs and its impact on employee organizational citizenship behavior. International Journal of Business and Commerce, 2(1), 67-75.
- Aguilera, R.V., Rupp, D.E., Williams, C.A., & Ganapathi, J. (2007). Putting the s back in corporate social responsibility: A multilevel theory of social change in organizations. Academy of Management Review, 32(3), 836-863. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5465/amr.2007.25275678
- Albdour, A.A., & Altarawneh, I.I. (2012). corporate social responsibility and employee engagement in Jordan. International Journal of Business and Management, 7(16), 89-101. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5539/ijbm.v7n16p89
- Albinger, H.S., & Freeman, S.J. (2000). Corporate social performance and attractiveness as an employer to different job seeking populations. Journal of Business Ethics, 28(3), 243-253. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1006289817941
- Ali, I., Rehman, K., Ali, S.I., Yousaf, J., & Zia, M. (2010). corporate social responsibility inﬂ uences, employee commitment and organizational performance. African Journal of Business Management, 4(12), 2796-2801.
- Bader, E. (2005). Sustainable hotel business practices. Journal of Retail and Leisure Property, 5(1), 70-77. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1057/palgrave.rlp.5090008
- Blackhaus, K., Stone, B.A., & Heiner, K. (2002). Exploring the relationship between corporate social performance and employer attractiveness. Business and Society, 41(3), 292-318. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0007650302041003003
- Blowﬁ eld, M., & Murray, A. (2011). Corporate Responsibility. 2nd ed. New York: Oxford, University Press.
- Bohdanowicz, P. (2006). Environmental awareness and initiatives in the swedish and polish hotel industries – Survey results. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 25 (4), 662-682. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhm.2005.06.006
- Buddelmeyer, H., Mourre, G., & Ward-Warmedinger, M. (2005). Part-time Work in EU Countries, Labour Market Mobility, Entry and Exit, European Central Bank. Working Paper Series No. 460.
- Butler, J. (2008). The compelling ‘hard case’ for ‘green’ hotel development. Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, 49(3), 234-244. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1938965508322174
- Carroll, A. (1991). The pyramid of corporate social responsibility: Toward the moral management of organizational stakeholders. Business Horizons, 34(4), 39-48. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0007-6813(91)90005-G
- De Grosbois, D. (2012). Corporate social responsibility reporting by the global hotel industry: Commitment, initiatives and performance. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 31(3), 896-905. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhm.2011.10.008
- European Commission (2001). Promoting a European Framework for Corporate Social Responsibility, Green Paper. Luxembourg: Ofﬁ ce for Ofﬁ cial Publications of the European Communities. p9.
- Fombrun, C., & Shanley, M. (1990). What’s in a name? Reputation building and corporate strategy. Academy of Management Journal, 33(2), 233-258. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5465/256324
- Foote, J., Gaffney, N., & Evansa, J.R. (2010). corporate social responsibility: Implications for performance excellence. Total Quality Management, 21 (8), 799-812. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/14783363.2010.487660
- Frank, F.D., Finnegan, R.P., & Taylor, C.R. (2004). The race for talent: Retaining and engaging workers in the 21st century. Human Resource Planning, 27(3), 12-23.
- Freeman, R.E. (1984). Strategic Management: A Stakeholder Approach. Boston: Pitman.
- Furunes, T., & Mykletun, R.J. (2005). Age management in norwegian hospitality business. Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, 5(2), 1-19. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/15022250510014390
- Greening, D.W., & Turban, D.B. (2000). Corporate social performance as a competitive advantage in attracting quality workforce. Business and Society, 39(3), 254-280. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/000765030003900302
- Greenwood, M. (2007). Stakeholder engagement: Beyond the myth of corporate responsibility. Journal of Business Ethics, 74(4), 315-327. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-007-9509-y
- Gross, R. (2010). Corporate Social Responsibility and Employee Engagement: Making the Connection, White Paper; 2010. Available from: http://www.mandrake.ca/ bill/images/corporate_responsibility_white_paper.pdf. Accessed 15.01.2014.
- Hansen, S.D., Dunford, B.B., Boss, A.D., Boss, R.W., & Angermeier, I. (2011). Corporate social responsibility and the beneﬁ ts of employee trust: A cross-disciplinary perspective. Journal of Business Ethics, 102(1), 29-45. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-011-0903-0
- Hodson, R. (2001). Dignity at Work. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511499333
- Holcomb, J.L., Upchurch, R.S., & Okumus, F. (2007). Corporate social responsibility: What are top hotel companies reporting? International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 19(6), 461-475. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/09596110710775129
- Insyirani, A.P., Kibtiah, P.M., Ningrum, O.D., & Prameswari, D.E. (2013). The Impact of Corporate Social Responsibility to Internal Employee Motivation. The 2nd IBSM. Chiang Mai, Bangkok: International Conference on Business and Management. pp2-4.
- Ismail, M. (2009). Corporate social responsibility and its role in community development: An international perspective. The Journal of International Social Research, 2(9), 199-209.
- Kotler, P., & Lee, N. (2005). Corporate Social Responsibility: Doing the Most Good for your Company and your Cause. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons Inc.
- Lee, S., & Park, S.Y. (2009). Do socially responsible activities help hotels and casinos achieve their ﬁnancial goals? International Journal of Hospitality Management, 28(1), 105-112. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhm.2008.06.003
- Lin, C.P. (2010). Modeling corporate citizenship, organizational trust and work engagement based on attachment theory. Journal of Business Ethics, 94, 517-531. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-009-0279-6
- Lockwood, N. (2004). Corporate social responsibility: HR’s leadership role. HR Magazine, 49(2), 1-10.
- Luce, R.A., Barber, A.E., & Hillman, A.J. (2001). good deeds and misdeeds: A mediated model of the effect of corporate social performance on organizational attractiveness. Business and Society, 40(4), 397-415. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/000765030104000403
- Mair, J., & Jago, L. (2010). The development of a conceptual model of greening in the business events tourism sector. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 18(1), 77-94. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/09669580903291007
- Matten, D., & Moon, J. (2008). Implicit and explicit CSR: A conceptual framework for a comparative understanding of corporate social responsibility. Academy of Management Review, 33(2), 404-424. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5465/amr.2008.31193458
- McGuire, J.B., Sundgren, A., & Schneeweis, T. (1988). Corporate social responsibility and ﬁ rm ﬁ nancial performance. Academy of Management Journal, 31(4), pp. 854-872. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/256342
- Mohr, L.A., Webb, D.J., & Harris, K.E. (2001). Do consumers expect companies to be socially responsible? The impact of corporate social responsibility on buying behavior. Journal of Consumer Affairs, 35(1), 45-72. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-6606.2001.tb00102.x
- Mosley, D., Pietri, P.H., & Megginson, L.C. (1996). Management: Leadership in Action. New York: Harper-Collins.
- Nurn, C.W., & Tan, G. (2010). Obtaining intangible and tangible beneﬁ ts from corporate social responsibility. International Review of Business Research Papers, 6(4), 360-371.
- Pech, R., & Slade, B. (2006). Employee disengagement: Is there evidence of a growing problem? Handbook of Business Strategy, 7(1), 21-25. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/10775730610618585
- Porter, M.E., & Kramer, M.R. (2006). The link between competitive advantage and corporate social responsibility. Harvard Business Review, 84(12), 78-92.
- Rupp, D.E., Ganapathi, J., Aguilera, R.V., & Williams, C.A. (2006). Employee reactions to corporate social responsibility: An organizational justice framework. Journal of Organizational Behaviour, 27(4), 537-543. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/job.380
- Saari, L.M., & Judge, T.A. (2004). Employee attitude and job satisfaction. Human Resource Management, 43(4), 395-407. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/hrm.20032
- Saks, A.M. (2006). Antecedents and consequences of employee engagement. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 21(7), 600-619. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/02683940610690169
- Stancu, A., Grigore, G.F., & Rosca, M.I. (2011). The impact of corporate social responsibility on employees. International Conference on Information and Finance, 21, 11-16.
- Stropnik, N. (2010). How can corporate social responsibility contribute to gender equality and work-life balance: Example of the family - friendly enterprise certiﬁ cate in slovenia. Naše Gospodarstvo Revija Za Aktualna Gospodarska Vprašanja, 56, 11-20.
- Tamm, K., Eamets, R., & Mõtsmees, P. (2010). Are Employees Better Off in Socially Responsible Firms? IZA Discussion Paper No. 5407. Available from: https://www. econstor.eu/dspace/bitstream/10419/51888/1/67045513X. pdf. Accessed 10.11.2014.
- Turban, D.B., & Cable, D.M. (2003). Firm reputation and applicant pool characteristics. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 24(6), 733-751. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/job.215
- Turban, D.B., & Greening, D.W. (1996). Corporate social performance and organizational attractiveness to prospective employees. Academy of Management Journal, 40(3), 658-672. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/257057
- Turker, D. (2009). Measuring corporate social responsibility: A scale development study. Journal of Business Ethics, 85(4), 411-427. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-008-9780-6
- Wheeler, D., & Sillanpää, M. (1997). The Stakeholder Corporation. London: Pitman.
- Wheeler, D., Svendsen, A.C., Boutilier, R.G., & Abbott, R.M. (2001). Measuring the Business Value of Stakeholder Relationships. Centre for Innovation and Management (CIM) Research Paper. p37.
- World Business Council for Sustainable Business Development (WBCSD). (2002). Corporate Social Responsibility. Geneva: WBCSD.
- Wuncharoen, C. (2013). The Relationship between Corporate Social Responsibility and Firm Performance from the Hotel Industry of Kho Samui Island, Thailand. Proceedings of 3rd Global Accounting, Finance and Economics Conference 5-7 May, 2013. Australia: Rydges Melbourne.
- Zafar, F., Nawaz, A., Farooqui, A., Abdullah, M., & Yousaf, I. (2014). Employees’ retention through corporate social responsibility in large scale organizations. International Journal of Business and Behavioral Sciences, 4(1), 1-13.