Main Article Content
Objective: The main aim of this study is to investigate the possible challenges and prospects in developing the future community-oriented tourism at Sof-Umar cave and its environs after examining the contemporary benefits of traditional tourism to the local community.
Methodology: The paper opted for a household survey method employing a mixed research approach. The questionnaire, interview and field observation were used as data gathering instruments whereas samples were systematically selected from Sof-Umar kebele. Descriptive and inferential statistics used to analyze the quantitative data.
Findings: The findings showed that the study area has enabling factors for the future-proof of tourism to be community-focused despite the challenges that are most commonly experienced in other parts of the country where this type of tourism has been virtually established.
Research limitations/implication: Because of the confinement of the objective to the possibility of making the future tourism community-focused, the study does not happen to show the contextual procedure for the development of this niche tourism. Thus, it’s recommended that a straightforward implementation guideline has to be prepared well in advance.
Originality/value: This study gives stakeholders fascinating insights into the problems related to the conventional tourism and the need to make the future tourism a community-focused so as to maximize the benefits of the sector and resolve the contemporary conflict.
Authors retain the copyright without restrictions for their published content in this journal. IJTHR is a Sherpa Romeo Journal.
This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of
- Babar, T. and Khanal, R. (2007). Community based ecotourism for sustainable tourism development in the Mekong Region.
- Bale Zone Finance and Economic Development. (2014). Physical and Socio-Economic Profile of Bale Zone. Finfine.
- Brandon, K., (1996). Ecotourism and Conservation: A Review of Key Issues. World Bank Environment Department. Paper No. 033. Washington. DC: World Bank.
- Cooper, C., Scott, N., March, R., Wilkinson, I., Pforr, C., & Thompson, G. (2006). The network structure of tourism operators in three regions of Australia. Australia: CRC for Sustainable Tourism Pty Ltd.
- Coudouel, A., Henschel, J., & Wodon, Q. (2002). Poverty measurement and analysis. In J. Klugman (Ed.), A source book for poverty reduction strategies, volume 1: Core techniques and cross-cutting issues, 26–69. Washington, DC: World Bank.
- Daniel, A. (2011). Challenges and Opportunities for the Establishment of Community- based Ecotourism in the Awash National Park Area. Unpublished thesis, Addis Ababa University.
- Derara, K. (2015). Development of community-based ecotourism in Wenchi Crater Lake, Ethiopia: Challenges and prospects. Journal of Hospitality and Management Tourism, 6 (4), 39-46. https://doi.org/10.5897/JHMT2014.0133 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5897/JHMT2014.0133
- Fennell, D. (1999). Ecotourism development: international, community, and site perspectives. Ecotourism: An Introduction (2nd edn). London: Routledge.
- Gebeyaw, A. (2011). Practices, Challenges and Opportunities of Community Based Ecotourism Development in Meket Woreda North Wollo. Unpublished Thesis, Addis Ababa University.
- Giampiccoli, A. and Kalis, J. (2012). Community-based tourism and local culture: the case of the Ama Mpondo. Revista de Turismo y Patrimonio Cultural, 10(1): 173-188. https://doi.org/10.25145/j.pasos.2012.10.017 DOI: https://doi.org/10.25145/j.pasos.2012.10.017
- Goodwin, H. and Santilli, R. (2009). Community-Based Tourism: a success?. ICRT Occasional paper 11.
- Himoonde, T. (2007). Opportunities and Constraints of Local Participation in Ecotourism. A Case Study of Kasanka National Park (KNP) Zambia. Master Thesis, Norwegian University of Science and Technology.
- Israel, D. (1992). Sampling, the Evidence of Extension Program Impact, Evaluation and Organizational Development. IFAS: University of Florida.
- Lucchetti, V. and Font, X. (2013). Community Based Tourism: Critical Success Factors. ICRT occasional paper, n. 27.
- Mearns, K. and Lukhele, S. (2015). Addressing the operational challenges of community-based tourism in Swaziland. African Journal of Hospitality, Tourism and Leisure Vol. 4 (1): 1-13.
- Nafbek, S. (2016). Assessing the typology of community participation in Wonchi Crater Lake Ecotourism Development, Ethiopia. Journal of Tourism, Hospitality and Sports, 18, 2312–5179.
- Nafbek, S., & Berhanu, E. (2017). Alignment of tourism against poverty in Bale eco-region, Dinsho district, Ethiopia. International Journal of Tourism Sciences, https://doi.org/10.1080/15980634.2017.1384132
- Nyaupane, G.P., Morais, D.B. & Dowler, L. (2006). The role of community involvement and number/type of visitors on tourism impacts: A controlled comparison of Annapurna, Nepal and Northwest Yunna, China. Tourism Management, 27( 6),1373-1385. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2005.12.013 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2005.12.013
- Okazaki, E. (2008). A Community-Based Tourism Model: Its Conception and Use. Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol. 16(5): 511-529. https://doi.org/10.1080/09669580802159594 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/09669580802159594
- Parks, T. Schuler, N. Chua, J. Magno, C. Johnson, K. Domado, H. and McCarthy, P. (2013). Community-‐Based Development in Conflict-‐Affected Areas of the Philippines.
- Phanumat, W., Sangsnit, N., Mitrchob, C., Keasang, S., & Noithammaraj, P. (2015). A multi-stakeholder participatory approach in community-based tourism development: a case study from Thailand. WIT Transactions on Ecology and The Environment, Vol 193, https://doi.org/10.2495/SDP150771 DOI: https://doi.org/10.2495/SDP150771
- Reid, D. (2003). Tourism, Globalization and Development: Responsible Tourism Planning. London: Pluto Press.
- REST. (1997). Community Based Tourism Handbook: Principles and Meaning.
- Robson, J., & Robson, I. (1996). From shareholders to stakeholders: Critical issues for tourism marketers. Tourism Management, 17(7), 533-540. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0261-5177(96)00070-2 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0261-5177(96)00070-2
- Ross, S. and Wall, G. (1999). Ecotourism: Towards Congruence between Theory and Practice. Journal of Tourism Management, 20(1), 123-132. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0261-5177(98)00098-3 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0261-5177(98)00098-3
- Scheyvens R. (2000). Promoting Women’s Empowerment through Involvement in Ecotourism: Experiences from the Third World. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 8(3), 232-249. https://doi.org/10.1080/09669580008667360 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/09669580008667360
- Sproule, K. (1996). Community-Based Ecotourism Development: Identifying Partners in the Process. In Malek-Zadeh, E. (ed.), The ecotourism equation: Measuring the impacts (pp.233-250). New Haven, CT: Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, Yale University.
- Telfer, D. (2009). Development Studies and Tourism. In Jamal, T., and Robinson, M. (editors). The SAGE handbook of tourism studies. SAGE Publications. https://doi.org/10.4135/9780857021076.n9
- The Mountain Institute. (2000). Community-Based Tourism for Conservation and Development: A Resource Kit. The Mountain Institute.
- Timothy, D. (2002). Tourism and Community Development Issues. In Sharpley, R., and Telfer, D. (Eds), Tourism and Development: Concepts and Issues (pp. 149-164). Clevedon: Channel View Publications.
- Trent, D. (2005). Developing Community Based Ecotourism. CECD-Community Ecotourism Consulting and Development Inc. USA.
- UNWTO. (2016). World Tourism Barometer. Madrid: Author.
- World Tourism Organization [WTO]. (2015). Tourism Highlights 2015 edition.
- WTO. (2011). Tourism Towards 2030: Global Overview. Madrid: Author.
- WTTC. (2016). Travel & Tourism Economic Impact 2016 World. London: Author.
- WWF International. (2001). Guidelines for community-based ecotourism development. Gland: Author
- Zemene and Biruk. (2015). Challenges and Practices of Tourist Destination Governance: A Case of Sofumar cave and Dire Sheikh Hussien. Unpublished paper. Bale Robe.