Main Article Content


Purpose: The purpose of this research was to determine the influence community cohesion has in enabling effective Community participation in community-based tourism within Kisite Mpunguti Ecosystem.

Methodology: Adopting descriptive and explanatory research design, the study employed both quantitative and qualitative methods in data collection; community households within Kisite Mpunguti Ecosystem are involved in community-based tourism for semi-structured questionnaires. Quantitative data was processed using descriptive and inferential statistics with content analysis used for qualitative data.

Main findings: Although community cohesion had a negative association with community participation, the relationship to community participation was significant thus concluding it as a determinant in enabling successful community participation in community-based tourism through elements like inclusion, belonging, equality, recognition, and trust among others.

Applications: This study is useful in the field of Rural and Community Based tourism on the element of factors enabling community participation in tourism, in this case, the community cohesion factor, especially in rural areas with unutilized tourism resources and the need for alternative sources of income.

Novelty: Findings provide knowledge to existing Community Based Tourism Projects nationwide on the vital role played by community cohesion anchored on principles like trust, equity, transparency, sharing responsibilities, commitment, and respect for one another and authority in achieving effective participation.


Community Participation Community Cohesion Community Based Tourism Kisite Mpunguti Ecosystem

Article Details

How to Cite
Rop, J. J., Manono, G., & Kiptanui, R. D. (2023). Building Community Cohesion for Effective Community Participation in Community-Based Tourism. International Journal of Tourism & Hospitality Reviews, 10(1), 01–07.


  1. Ali, H. (2018). Determinants of Community Participation in the implementation of development projects. A case of Garissa Sewerage Project, Kenya. International Journal of Economics, Commerce and Management, IV.
  2. Anuar, A., & Sood, N. (2017). Community Based Tourism: Understanding Benefits and Challenges. Journal of Tourism and Hospitality, 6(1).
  3. Armstrong, R. (2012, August 19). An analysis of the conditions for success of community based tourism enterprises. Retrieved from
  4. Bagul, A., & Eranza, D. (2010). Success Indicators for Local Community participation in Community Based tourism. International Conference on Sustainable Communtiy Development 2010 (pp. 5-15). Putra: Universiti Putra Malaysia.
  5. Beeton, S. (2006). Community Development Through Tourism. Collingwood: LandLinks Press. 10.1071/9780643093881
  6. Chandago, M. D., & Kisimbii, J. (2020). Determinants of community participation in the implementation of development projects in Kenya, A case of Kwale County. Journal of Entrepreneurship & Project management, 4(6), 21-37.
  7. County Gorvenment of Kwale. (2013). County Intergrated Development Plan 2013-2017. Kwale: County Gorvenment of Kwale.
  8. County Government of Kwale. (2018). Second Kwale County Integrated Development Plan 2018-2022: Continuing Kwale’s Transformation Together. kwale: County Government of Kwale.
  9. Dodds, R., Ali, A., & Galaski, K. (2016). Mobilizing Knowledge: Key elements of success and barriers in community based tourism. Current Issues in Tourism, 21(13), 1-27. .2016.1150257
  10. Dogra, R., & Gupta, A. (2012). Barriers to Community Participation in Tourism Development: Empirical Evidence from a Rural Destination. South Asian Journal of Tourism and Heritage, 5(1) 219-142.
  11. Emerton, L., & Tessema , Y. (2001). Economic Constraints to the Management of Marine Protected Areas: the Case of Kisite Marine Park. The World Conservation Union, Eastern Africa Regional Office Nairobi.
  12. Etzioni, A. (1995). The Responsive Community: A Communitarian Perspective. American Sociological Review, 61(1),1-11.
  13. Hassan, R. S., & Islam, S. (2014). Community Based Tourism for Socio-economic Development: Bangladesh Perspective. Dhaka: University of Dhaka.
  14. Holman, D. (2015). The relational bent of community participation: The challenge social network analysis and Simmel offer to top-down prescriptions of ‘community'. Community Development Journal, 50, 418–432.
  15. Juma, L. O., & Vidra, A. K. (2019). Community-Based Tourism and Sustainable Development of Rural Regions in Kenya; Perceptions of the Citizenry. Sustainability, 11(17), 1-23. 174733
  16. Kamble, Z., & Bouchon, F. (2016). Developing a framework for assessing social cohesion via tourism. Tourism Review, 71(4), 272-286 .
  17. Karl, M. (2000). Monitoring and Evaluating Stakeholder Participation in Agriculture and Rural Development Projects. Rome: SD DIMENTION.
  18. Kenya Wildlife Service. (2015). Kisite-Mpunguti Marine Protected Area Management Plan, 2015-2025. Nairobi: KWS.
  19. Klein, C. (2011). Social Capital or Social Cohesion: What Matters for Subjective Well-Being. Luxembourg: Higher Education.
  20. KNBS. (2009). 2009 Kenya Population and Housing Census. Nairobi: KNBS.
  21. Kothari, C. R. (2004). Research Methodology: Methods and Techniques. New Delhi: New Age International.
  22. Kwoba, P. (2016). Dynamics of Cultural Tourism Development: Determinants of Host Community's Attitudes. Saarbrucken : LAMBERT Academic Publishing.
  23. Lowndes, V., Pratchett, L., & Stoker, G. (2006). Diagnosing and Remedying the Failings of Official Participation Scheme: The CLEAR Framework. Social Policy & Society, 5(2), 281–291. 17/S1474746405002988
  24. Mak, K. L., Cheung, T. O., & Hui, L. H. (2017). Community Participation in the Decision-Making Process for Sustainable Tourism Development in Rural Areas of Hong Kong, China. Sustainability, 9(10), 1-13.
  25. Marson, D. (2011). From Mass Tourism to Niche Tourism. In P. Robinson, S. Heitmann, & P. Dieke (Eds.), Research Themes for Tourism. Wallingford: CAB International.
  26. Martin, L., & Mcheimech, R. (2016). Understanding Community. Canadian Journal of Disability Studies, 182-203.
  27. Mugenda, O., & Mugenda, A. (2009). Research Methods:Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches. Nairobi: Acts Press.
  28. Muyoka, E. (2016). Determinants of Community participation in development projects in Tana River County, Kenya. Nairobi: University of Nairobi.
  29. Onyango, L. A., Mutui, F. N., & Wabwire, E. (2019). An Analysis of the Factors Affecting Public Participation in Environmental Impact Assessment: Case Study of Selected Projects in Nairobi City County Kenya. European Scientific Journal, 15(9), 284-303.
  30. Page, S. (2007). Tourism Management : Managing for Change (2nd ed.). Amsterdam: Butterworth Heinemann.
  31. Pender, L. (2006). Managing the Tourism System. In L. Pender, & R. Sharpley, The Management of Tourism. London: Sage Publications.
  32. Putnam, R. (2000). Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community. 2000 ACM conference on Computer supported cooperative work. NewYork.
  33. Rasoolimanesh, M., & Jaafar, M. (2016). Community Participation toward Tourism Development and Conservation Program in Rural World Heritage Sites. In L. Butowski, Tourism - From Empirical Research Towards Practical (pp. 1-10). Malaysia: InTechOpen.
  34. Reed, M. S. (2008). Stakeholder Participation for Environmental Management: A Literature Review. Biological Conservation, 141(10), 2417-2431.
  35. Ruchina, B. C. (2016). Connectivity and Interdependence: Social Network Analysis of Community Tourism in Pamilacan Island, the Philippines. Nagoya: Nagoya University.
  36. Sahu, P. K. (2013). Research Methodology:A Guide for Researchers in Agricultural Science Social Science and OtherRelated Fields. New Delhi: Springer.
  37. Sari, S. R., Suwarno, N., Nuryanti, W., & Diananta, D. (2014). The Role of Social Cohesion to Reduce Social Conflict in Tourist Destination Area. Jurnal Komunitas: Research And Learning In Sociology And Anthropology, 6(2), 294-302.
  38. Stoker, G. (2006). Monitoring Social Participation: implementing the C.L.E.A.R model. Council of Europe.
  39. Wondirad, A., & Ewnetu, B. (2019). Community participation in tourism development as a tool to foster sustainable land and resource use practices in a national park milieu. Land use policy, 88, 1-13.