Main Article Content


Purpose: This study investigates the current implementation status of the Mountaineering Expedition Rules (MER) of 2002 in Nepal, focusing on waste management practices during mountain expeditions from the stakeholder's perspective.

Methodology: The study used a descriptive research design with a mixed approach, collecting primary data through structured questionnaires and key informant interviews. Data analysis is conducted using descriptive statistics for quantitative data and content analysis for qualitative data.

Main Findings: The findings highlight the need for improvement in waste management during mountain expeditions in Nepal. While climbers demonstrate a moderate to high level of awareness and implementation of waste management practices, challenges such as limited budgets, lack of self-awareness among expeditioners, and slow decay of waste in cold weather persist. The study emphasizes the importance of proper implementation of mountaineering expedition rules, particularly in waste management.

Implications: This study contributes to the development of sustainable tourism practices in Nepal and the preservation of the mountain environment. The study recognizes the efforts made by the Nepalese government through policies and regulations to address waste management issues. The goal is to protect the fragile mountain ecosystem while facilitating the growth of sustainable mountain tourism.

Novelty: It offers practical recommendations based on stakeholder perspectives, which can inform policy formulation in Nepal and other countries with similar mountain tourism contexts.


Implementation Mountaineering Expedition Rules 2002 Nepal Stakeholders Waste Management Mountain Expeditions

Article Details

Author Biographies

Gangaram Biswakarma, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal

Assistant Professor, Faculty of Management

Utshav Rijal, Nepal Academy of Tourism and Hotel Management, Kathmandu, Nepal


Sudichhya Thapa, Nepal Academy of Tourism and Hotel Management, Kathmandu, Nepal


Swastika Dhakal, Nepal Academy of Tourism and Hotel Management, Kathmandu, Nepal


Tridev Kishor K.C., Nepal Academy of Tourism and Hotel Management, Kathmandu, Nepal


Trilok Manandhar, Nepal Academy of Tourism and Hotel Management, Kathmandu, Nepal


How to Cite
Biswakarma, G., Rijal, U., Thapa, S., Dhakal, S., Kishor K.C., T., & Manandhar, T. (2023). Waste Management Policy and Practices in Mountain Expeditions in Nepal: Stakeholder’s Perspective on Implementation of Mountaineering Expedition Rules. International Journal of Tourism & Hospitality Reviews, 10(2), 01–14.


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