Main Article Content


Purpose: The purpose of the article is to explore the impact of foreign travel on language and cultural exchange. It aims to understand the linguistic involvement that occurs when people travel to foreign countries, examining interactions, expectations, values, norms, co-learning, and culture change.

Methodology: The article utilizes a qualitative approach to investigate the relationship between foreign travel and language acquisition. The methodology involves analyzing the experiences of individuals who have traveled abroad, and examining the impact of meeting foreigners, particularly in a multilingual setting.

Main Findings: The main findings of the article suggest that foreign travel has a significant impact on language acquisition and cultural exchange. The article highlights that traveling to foreign countries, especially in a multilingual setting, facilitates better and faster language learning. It emphasizes the importance of exposure to the target language and how motivation derived from meeting locals can accelerate language acquisition.

Implications: The article concludes by discussing the implications of foreign travel on language and cultural stance. The article suggests that the effects of foreign travel on language and cultural exchange have far-reaching implications for individuals and societies, fostering intercultural understanding and global perspectives.

Novelty: While there have been previous studies on the topic, this research offers a distinctive approach by considering various aspects such as interactions, expectations, values, norms, co-learning, and culture change in the context of linguistic involvement during travel.


foreign travel languages culture tourism cultural changes co-learning

Article Details

Author Biography

Milad Mousapour Balegh, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz Branch, Iran

Faculty of Foreign Languages

How to Cite
Mousapour Balegh, M. (2023). A Universal Panorama of Foreign Travel with Derived Significance of its Peripheral Occasions for Language Approach. International Journal of Tourism & Hospitality Reviews, 10(2), 15–25.


  1. African Mecca. (2017). Why Go To Africa For A Safari, Cultural & Historical Trip, Marine Beach Vacation, Top 12 Trip Reasons For A Vacation Visit. African Mecca Safaris, retrieved 11 September 2021 from African Mecca website:
  2. Agnew, J. A. (1987). Place and Politics: The Geographical Mediation of State and Society. Progress in Human Geography, 27(5), 605-614. DOI:
  3. Albion, P., & Darmi, R. (2013). English language in the Malaysian education system: its existence and implications. In: 3rd Malaysian Postgraduate Conference (MPC 2013), 4-5 July 2013, 1-10.
  4. Anderson, S. (2012). Languages: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-959059-9. DOI:
  5. Armstrong, D.G., Boehm, R.G, Hunkins, F.P., Lobrecht, M., & Reinhartz, D. (2001). Geography: The World and Its People, McGraw-Hill Education. ISBN 978-0078249419.
  6. Austin, P.K., & Sallabank, J. (2011). "Introduction". In Austin, Peter K; Sallabank, Julia. Cambridge Handbook of Endangered Languages. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-88215-6. DOI:
  7. Beeton, R. J. S., & Bill Carter, R. W. (2004). A model of cultural change and tourism. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 9(4), 423-442. DOI:
  8. Bronwyn. (2020). 3 Reasons why Africa is the best place to travel to in the world, Why Africa is the best place to Travel to in the world. African Budget Safaris, retrieved 11 September 2021 from the African Budget Safaris website:
  9. Buhalis, D., & Law, R. (2008). "Progress in information technology and tourism management: 20 years on and 10 years after the Internet-The state of eTourism research." Tourism Management, 29(4), 609-623. DOI:
  10. Buhalis, D., Law, R., & Leung, R. (2009). Information technology applications in hospitality and tourism: A review of publications from 2005 to 2007. Journal of travel & tourism marketing, 26(5-6), 599-623. DOI:
  11. Byrnes, D. A. (2001). Travel schooling: Helping children learn through travel. Childhood Education, 77(6), 345-350. DOI:
  12. Cindy. (2021). Top 12 Reasons to Visit Southeast Asia: Why SEA Is Special. Asia Highlights, retrieved 11 September 2021 from Asia Highlights website:
  13. Clark, M., & Council of Europe. (2010). T-Kit No. 11: Mosaic: The Training Kit for Euro-Mediterranean Youth Work. Mediterranean Journal of Educational Studies, 15(2), 178-196.
  14. Collins. Language definition and meaning. Collins English Dictionary, retrieved 09 September 2021 from Collins English Dictionary website:
  15. Conde, T. (2019). Should Travel Be Considered an Achievement? TripZilla, retrieved 10 September 2021 from TripZilla website:
  16. Daintith, J. (2009). "IT", A Dictionary of Physics, Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199233991. DOI:
  17. Technology Definition & Meaning., retrieved 10 September 2021 from website:
  18. Dorrell, D., & Henderson, J. P. (2019). Introduction to Human Geography, Classification of Languages, 5(3), 2-3.
  19. Duan, L., Hu, C., Huang, C., & Li, Y. (2017). The concept of smart tourism in the context of tourism information services. Tourism Management, 58(C), 293-300. DOI:
  20. Esmaeil Zaei, M. (2013). The Impacts of Tourism Industry on Host Community. European journal of tourism hospitality and research, 1(2), 12-21.
  21. Eurydice. (2005). Key data on teaching languages at schools in Europe. Brussels: The European Unit. ISBN 92-894-8681-3.
  22. Expat Explore. (2021). 10 Reasons why you should book a tour to Europe. Expat Explore, retrieved 11 September 2021 from Expat Explore website:
  23. Faladeobalade, T., & Dubey, S. (2014). Managing Tourism as a source of Revenue and Foreign direct investment inflow in a Developing Country: The Jordanian Experience. International Journal of Academic Research in Economics and Management Sciences, 3(3). DOI:
  24. Feldherr, A., & Grant, H. (2011). The Oxford History of Historical Writing, 1(5). Beginnings to AD 600. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199218158. DOI:
  25. Fernandes Guimarães Lobato, L. M. (2019). Food Tourism: A netnographic study about online engagement on food tourism communities and what to look for as a business owner, Universidade Católica Portuguesa.
  26. Genesee, F. (2008). Dual language in the global village. In T. Fortune & D. Tedick (Eds.), Pathways to multilingualism: Evolving perspectives on immersion education, 22-45. Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters. DOI:
  27. Germann Molz, J. (2010). Performing Global Geographies: Time, Space, Place and Pace in Narratives of Round-the-World Travel. Tourism Geographies, 12(3), 329-348. DOI:
  28. Giovanis, N., Papacharalabous, C., & Tziora, N. (2016). The role of foreign languages in hospitality management. International Journal of Language, Translation and Intercultural Communication, 4(1), 89-97. DOI:
  29. Gonza'lez Cruz, M.I,. & Gonza'lez de la Rosa, M.P. (2006). Language and Travel: Spanish Vocabulary in British Travel Books. Journal of Iberian and Latin American Studies, 12(2-3), 203-217. DOI:
  30. Graddol, D. (2004). "The Future of Language". Science, 303(5662), 1329-1331. Bibcode: 2004Sci...303.1329G. PMID 14988552. S2CID 35904484. DOI:
  31. Hanlon, P. (2004). Global Airlines, Oxford: Butterworth Heinemann. ISBN 9780750664394. DOI:
  32. Herre, B., Roser, M., & Samborska, V. (2023). Tourism, retrieved 11 June 2023 from Our world indata website:
  33. Inventional and Institute. (2018). Co-Learning In Education, Co-Learning in Education Works Wonders For Future Generations. Invention and Institute, retrieved 12 September 2021 from Inventional and Institute website:
  34. ISO. Country names and code elements. Standardization, retrieved 10 September 2021 from International Organization for Standardization website:
  35. Jabeen, T., & Sultan, S. (2020). Evolution of Borders and Borderlands: A Historical Overview. Pakistan Social Sciences, 4(3), 951-959. DOI:
  36. Johnson, D., & Johnson, R. (1990). Cooperative learning and achievement. In S. Sharan (Ed.), Cooperative learning: Theory and research, 23-37. NewYork: Praeger.
  37. Kabii, T. (1996). An overview of African wetlands. AFRICA - Publications deposited by individuals. Ramsar Bureau, Switzerland.
  38. Konsbruck, R. L. (2001). Impacts of Information Technology on Society in the New Century, Route de Chavannes, 27C, CH-1007 Lausanne-Vidy, Switzerland.
  39. Kumi-Yeboah, A. (2018). Designing a cross-cultural collaborative online learning framework for online instructors. Online Learning, 22(4), 181-201. DOI:
  40. Kuo, Ming-Mu., & Lai, Cheng-Chieh. (2006). Linguistics across Cultures: The Impact of Culture on Second Language Learning, Journal of Foreign Language Instruction, 1(1).
  41. Lebrón, A. (2013). What is culture? Merit Research Journal of Education and Review, 1(6), 126-132.
  42. Lee H., Oh, J., & Pradhan, M.K. (2018). "Understanding Travelers' Behavior for Sustainable Smart Tourism: A Technology Readiness Perspective". Sustainability, 10(11), 4259. DOI:
  43. Lee, HW. (2006). International human resource management can be achieved through cultural studies and relevant training. The Business Review, 5(2), 95.
  44. Li, X.R., Wang, X., Zhang, J., & Zhen, F. (2016). How smart is your tourist attraction? Measuring tourist preferences of smart tourism attractions via an FCEM-AHP and IPA approach. Tourism Management, 54, 309-320. DOI:
  45. Liu, T., & Wei, B. (2015). Digital Publishing to Create "Smart Tourism". LISS 2014, 1733-1738. Springer: Berlin, Germany. DOI:
  46. Lohmann, G., & Pearce, D.G. (2012). Tourism and Transport Relationships: The Suppliers' Perspective in Gateway Destinations in New Zealand. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 17(1), 14-29. DOI:
  47. Lu, L.T. (2006). The relationship between cultural distance performance in international Joint Ventures: A critique and ideas for further research. The International Journal of Management, 23(3), 436.
  48. Luka, I. (2007). Development of Students' Intercultural Competence at the Tertiary Level. Polish Journal of Applied Psychology, 5, 97-111.
  49. MacCannell, D. (2002). The ego factor in tourism. Journal of Consumer Research, 29(1), 146-151. DOI:
  50. Mansperger, Mark C. (1995). "Tourism and cultural change in small-scale societies". Human Organization, 54(1), 87-94. DOI:
  51. Mathieson, A. & Wall, G. (1982). "Tourism: economic, physical and social impacts", Longman: Harlow, UK. ISBN 0-582-30061-4.
  52. McCarthy, N. (2020). The World's Most Spoken Languages, Chart: The World's Most Spoken Languages. Statista, retrieved 12 September 2021 from Statista website:
  53. Moseley, C. (2010). Atlas of the World's Languages in Danger - 3rd edition. Paris: UNESCO Publishing. ISBN 978-0-9566052-4-5.
  54. Mouton, D. G. (2015). Traveling Through Languages: Reports on Language Experiences in Tourists' Travel Blogs. Multilingua, 34(3), 347-372. DOI:
  55. Navío-Marco, J., Ruiz-Gómez, L.M., & Sevilla-Sevilla, C. (2018). "Progress in information technology and tourism management: 30 years on and 20 years after the internet - Revisiting Buhalis & Law's landmark study about eTourism." Tourism Management, 69, 460-470. DOI:
  56. Nunemaker, J. H. (2016). Advantages of Foreign Travel and Study to the Modern Language Teacher. The Modern Language Journal, 11(7), 411-415. DOI:
  57. Neumayer, E. (2009). Visa Restrictions and Bilateral Travel. The Professional Geographer, 62(2), 171-181. DOI:
  58. Palmer, B. (2019). 4 Reasons Why Global Tourism is Skyrocketing. PCMA, retrieved 10 September 2021 from PCMA website:
  59. Rachels, J. (1999). The Challenge of Cultural Relativism. The Elements of Moral Philosophy, 2, 15-29.
  60. Ramvie, S. (2007). Why Do People Travel? EzineArticles, retrieved 10 September 2021 from EzineArticles website:
  61. Real World. (2013). Why travel to North and South America? The Real World, retrieved 11 September 2021 from The Real World website:
  62. Ristovska, A., & Ristovska, K. (2014). The Impact of Globalization on the Business. Economic Analysis, 47(3), 83-89. Belgrade. ISSN 1821-2573. ZDB-ID 2750161-9.
  63. Robinson, M., & Tazim, J. (2009). The SAGE Handbook of Tourism Studies, 371-395. Los Angeles: SAGE. ISBN 978-1412-9239-72., PMCid:PMC2741489. DOI:
  64. Russinovich Solé, Y. (1994). "The Input Hypothesis and the Bilingual Learner". The Bilingual Review, 19(2), 99-110. JSTOR 25745211.
  65. Serban, V. (2021). Top 7 Reasons To Travel Abroad. QS World University, retrieved 10 September 2021 from QS World University Rankings website:
  66. Sofronov, B. (2018). "The Development of the Travel and Tourism Industry in the World." Annals of Spiru Haret University. Economic Series, 18(4), 123-137. DOI:
  67. Statista. (2023). Number of international tourist arrivals worldwide from 1950 to 2022. Statista, retrieved 11 June 2023 from Statista website:
  68. Sutton, B. (2013). The Effects of Technology in Society and Education. Technology in Society and Education, 192. Master's Theses. The College at Brockport: State University of New York.
  69. Thompson, A. (2019). The Pros & Cons of Moving to a New Country., retrieved 10 September 2021 from website:
  70. Traveloka Accommodation. (2021). Top 9 Reasons Why You Should Visit Southeast Asia Now. Traveloka, retrieved 11 September 2021 from Traveloka website:
  71. United Nations. (1999). The World at Six Billion, Population Division. Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations Secretariat, 1-11.
  72. United Nations World Tourism Organization - World Tourism Barometer. (2019). International Tourist Arrivals by World Region - Variable period: 1950 - 2018. Our World in Data, retrieved 10 September 2021 from Our World in Data website:
  73. Ute, L.R. (2020). Can adults acquire a language the same way as children? International Lounge, retrieved 08 September 2021 from International Lounge website:
  74. Veltmeyer, H &., Rushton, M. (2012). The Cuban Revolution as Socialist Human Development, Chapter 6, Human Development as Social Welfare. Studies in Critical Social Sciences, 36, 151-169. DOI:
  75. Worldwide distribution of languages., retrieved 11 September 2021 from website:
  76. Xamaní, M.I. (2015). Second Language Acquisition and the Language Tourism Experience. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 178. 139-145. DOI: