Main Article Content


Purpose of the study: Uninterrupted hospital services and medical functions are the keys to functional resilience to cope with mass casualties. This paper presents the important level of resilience indicators for hospital functions to withstand natural disasters.

Methodology: For the survey, 21 indicators are grouped into three domains focusing on i) general concerns of healthcare infrastructure planning ii) design and planning of hospital buildings iii) emergency service and management. The corresponding indicators were ranked on a Likert scale of 1 to 5. The authors collected 389 responses through an online survey of the healthcare professionals including disaster management professionals, medical officers, hospital architects, planners, project managers, and engineers.

Main Findings: The data were analysed for determining the Relative Importance Index (RII) of each indicator. The top 7 indicators as an outcome of this research are: ‘access to the emergency services (0.861), ‘planning of refugee settlements’ (0.814), ‘uninterrupted supply of MEP services to critical units’ (0.871), ‘signages for internal circulation’ (0.845), ‘adaptive control, command, and communication system’ (0.848), ‘flexible spatial planning in case of a surge of patients’(0.813), ‘ensuring availability of healthcare workers with the provision of support infrastructure’ (0.758).

Applications of this study: Assessment of the top indicators highlight the importance of ‘flexible design’ and ‘access to medical functions of a hospital building’. Based on these outcomes, it is proposed to develop a numerical framework for a comprehensive design appraisal of resilient hospital buildings.


Resilience Indicators Hydrological Disasters Hospital Design Planning and Management Measuring Resilience

Article Details

Author Biographies

Niyati Gupta, Research Scholar, Department of Architecture, School of Planning and Architecture, Delhi, India

Research Scholar, Department of Architecture, School of Planning and Architecture, Delhi

Manoj Mathur, Professor, Department of Architecture, School of Planning and Architecture, Delhi

Professor, Department of Architecture, School of Planning and Architecture, Delhi

How to Cite
Gupta, N., Dewan, A., & Mathur, M. (2021). ESTIMATING RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF RESILIENCE INDICATORS FOR LARGE-SCALE HOSPITAL BUILDINGS TO WITHSTAND HYDROLOGICAL DISASTERS. International Journal of Students’ Research in Technology & Management, 9(3), 24-33.


  1. Murray, V., & Ebi, K. L. (2012). IPCC special report on managing the risks of extreme events and disasters to advance climate change adaptation (SREX). DOI:
  2. National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA). (2008). National Disaster Management Guidelines- Management of Floods. New Delhi.
  3. NDMA. (2016). Guidelines on Hospital Safety. National Disaster Management Authority, GoI.
  4. Carballo, M., Daita, S., & Hernandez, M. (2005). Impact of the Tsunami on healthcare systems. DOI:
  5. Achour, N., Miyajima, M., Pascale, F., & Price, A. D. (2014). Hospital resilience to natural hazards: classification and performance of utilities. Disaster prevention and management, 23(1). 08/DPM-03-2013-0057 DOI:
  6. National Disaster Management Authority-Newsletter. (2021, May 14). Double trouble cyclone tauktae and cyclone yaas. National Disaster Management Authority, Government of India. ult/files/PDF/Newsletters/Aapda-Samvaad-Issue-May-2021.pdf
  7. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2018). Public health emergency preparedness and response capabilities: National standards for state, local, tribal, and territorial public health. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services.
  8. Kumar, P., Sahu, N. C., & Kumar, S. (2021). Natural disasters and income inequality in South Asia: an FGLS panel analysis. Critical Perspectives on Emerging Economies. Contributions to Economics. Springer, Cham, 27-39. DOI:
  9. Spencer, C., Majeed, S., McArdle, D., Parkinson, D., & Archer, F. (2019). Long-term disaster resilience: A research gap. Prehosp. Disaster Med, 34(1), s21. DOI:
  10. Hojat, M. (2008, July). A survey of hospital disaster management in medical science universities of Tehran-2005. In The 19th International Nursing Research Congress Focusing on Evidence-Based Practice.
  11. Back, M. H., & Kim, H. J. (2010). Analysis of hospital disaster in South Korea from 1990 to 2008. Yonsei medical journal, 51(6), 965-970. DOI:
  12. Nekoie-Moghadam, M., Kurland, L., Moosazadeh, M., Ingrassia, P. L., Della Corte, F., & Djalali, A. (2016). Tools and checklists used for the evaluation of hospital disaster preparedness: a systematic review. Disaster medicine and public health preparedness, 10(5), 781-788. DOI:
  13. Department of Homeland Security. (2007). Guidelines for improving Hospital Safety. FEMA.
  14. Department of Homeland Security (DHS), Government of US. (2012). Sector Resilience Report. Department of Homeland Security.
  15. FEMA. (2013). Reducing Flood Effects in Critical Facilities.
  16. FEMA. (n.d.). Columbus Regional Health- Flood of 2008.
  17. FEMA. (n.d.). 2020 Mitigation Best Practises.
  18. World Health Organization. (2015). Hospital Safety Index- Guide for Evaluators WHO.
  19. Floods in the WHO European Region- Health Effects and their prevention WHO (2013).
  20. World Health Organization. (2014). Floods and health- Fact sheets for health professionals.
  21. World Health Organization. (2015). Comprehensive Safe Hospital Framework.
  22. PAHO. (2014). Smart Hospitals Toolkit- Cost Benefit Analysis.
  23. Jacques, C. C., McIntosh, J., Giovinazzi, S., Kirsch, T. D., Wilson, T., & Mitrani-Reiser, J. (2014). Resilience of the Canterbury hospital system to the 2011 Christchurch earthquake. Earthquake spectra, 30(1), 533-554. DOI:
  24. Liu, M., Anbumozhi, V. Application of supply chain approach to improving hazard-resilient health services: framework analysis for ASEAN and options of implementation. J. Soc. Econ. Dev. (2021). DOI:
  25. Rodrigues Leal Moitinho De Almeida, M. (2021). Fostering hospital resilience to disasters: lessons from a tertiary hospital in Nepal (Doctoral dissertation, UCL-Université Catholique de Louvain).
  26. Yusoff, N. A., Shafii, H., & Omar, R. (2017, November). The impact of floods in hospital and mitigation measures: A literature review. In IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering (Vol. 271, No. 1, p. 012026). IOP Publishing. DOI:
  27. Zhong, S., Clark, M., Hou, X. Y., Zang, Y., & FitzGerald, G. (2014). Validation of a framework for measuring hospital disaster resilience using factor analysis. International journal of environmental research and public health, 11(6), 6335-6353. DOI:
  28. Cimellaro, G. P. (2016). Urban resilience for emergency response and recovery. Fundamental Concepts and Applications. DOI:
  29. Sharma, S. K., & Sharma, N. (2020). Hospital preparedness and resilience in public health emergencies at district hospitals and community health centres. Journal of Health Management, 22(2), 146-156. DOI:
  30. PAHO. (2014). Smart Hospitals Toolkit- Cost Benefit Analysis.
  31. Krishnan, S., & Patnaik, I. (2020). Health and disaster risk management in India. Public Health and Disasters, 155-184. DOI:
  32. Stone, T., Banks, J., Brant, H., Kesten, J., Redfern, E., Remmers, A., & Redwood, S. (2020). The introduction of a safety checklist in two UK hospital emergency departments: A qualitative study of implementation and staff use. Journal of clinical nursing, 29(7-8), 1267-1275. DOI:
  33. TANGO International. (2018). Methodological Guide: A Guide for Calculating Resilience Capacity. Produced by TANGO International as part of the Resilience Evaluation,Analysis and Learning (REAL) Associate Award.
  34. Kotrlik, J. W. K. J. W., & Higgins, C. C. H. C. C. (2001). Organizational research: Determining appropriate sample size in survey research appropriate sample size in survey research. Information technology, learning, and performance journal, 19(1), 43.
  35. Aibinu, A. A., & Jagboro, G. O. (2002). The effects of construction delays on project delivery in Nigerian construction industry. International journal of project management, 20(8), 593-599. 016/S0263-7863(02)00028-5 DOI: